Head News /
Alerts for Smart Agriculture
2019/08/26

(Part 2)

 

The extensive use of food computer kits, hydroponics, and aeroponics, ring gardening facilitate the continuous monitoring of effective plant growth variables, however, these extensive changes not only influence the technical structure but also the institutional structure. Development of large holdings, agro-cooperatives, multi-national trusts, and agricultural credit unions are some of the examples.

It seems the era of individual service providing to farmers has expired and considering the development of large agro enterprises, the collected data from soil or plants belonging to the national unions rather than an individual farmer.

Today, a large part of agricultural researches and IOT is done on the farms owned by agro-cooperatives or by a joint venture between on-farm, school farms and research centers. For example, in South Korea, the cooperative members use their cell phones for monitoring the PH and temperature of the soil, the dairy products as well as the statistical data for livestock and cropping. India and Pakistan by applying photocells have achieved marvelous outcomes in energy saving. In Canada, drones are used to collect more precious data of farms for Ontario cooperatives' member; furthermore, the sue Satellites to gain the farming data including yield, topography, the humidity, and Nitrogen level of soil in regular intervals. In the geothermal greenhouses of Turkey cities including, Afyon, Alanya and Eskisehir, the robotic technology is used to recover the vast reservoir of thermal energy of the underground and convert it to heat that can be utilized in greenhouses. Agricultural genomics, or agrigenomics (the application of genomics in agriculture), has and will continue to drive sustainable productivity and offer solutions to the mounting challenges of feeding the global population. Using modern technology, farmers, breeders, and researchers can easily identify the genetic markers linked to desirable traits, informing cultivation and breeding decisions. Smart fishing uses automation and artificial intelligence from 2014 in Europe, South Korea, North America, and Japan. Farmers of USA have extensively used smart agriculture by applying AKIS network, data collection and processing to improve the agriculture practice of agro-cooperatives' members.

Meanwhile, in Spain , the main users of the smart agriculture are the research institutes and the Almeria union of horticulture cooperatives (Kassie),in which the farmers use biosensors for monitoring the humidity, electro conductivity and specification of soil ,climate parameters, air composition (light ,humidity ,pollution, temperature ) and so on. They send the collected data through WIFI or G3 to cloud base calculators so that every cooperative member could attain data through the internet. The European main stockholders of the smart agriculture are trying to boost the farmers' resiliency and compatibility power through data dissemination, risk management, securing common interests, fair distribution of agricultural inputs, decision-making system support (DDS), GPS, and GNSS.

Based on the FAO prediction, it is expected that smart agriculture would grow 12% by 2020 to fetch 5.8 billion Euro of the market share. The majority of market shares belong to North America, Europe, and Pacific, while Asia with 20% growth and Africa with 17%growth rates are the second and third respectively. Iran has joined to the "world space club" as the 9th country; therefore Iran is capable enough to seize this opportunity to tackle challenges due to the depreciation of resources, waste management and enhance productivity. Iran agriculture society needs to mount resistance to produce economically and to be compatible enough with climate changes. The aftermaths of three decades of drought are tangible. Unfortunately, the higher education system for agriculture has already depended on the old learning of the 60th decade. It does not observe the technological improvements; however the extension education system has recently invented some application, but it is dominated by the old pattern of the seventh decade. Notwithstanding, the research sector is suffering a similar problem and is further from smart agriculture as a unique research topic.

The agricultural institutions need modernization, active policy-making, and legal framework in order to empower the farmers, with a focus on 4.5 rural and agricultural cooperative members. They need to be compatible and resistant enough to face the challenges of the climate changes through adaptation and application of the knowledge and skills of the very nature of smart agriculture.

The existing farming systems are not responsible enough to meet the increasing needs of farmers. They are inefficient because of accumulated debts. The union of rural and agricultural cooperatives, agriculture service centers, agro-joint stock companies, rural production cooperatives, and water resource cooperatives has very old and outdated "Article of Association" that even is not able to guaranty their sustainability, let alone to motivate them. Central organization for rural cooperatives, moreover, is suffering the obsolescence and is not capable to make its commitment to farmers' society. It needs an updated "Article of association" which is compatible enough according to the existing challenges. Definitely, smart agriculture would motivate the agriculture sector to initiate modern fundamentals and basis. We should develop legal structures to facilitate the alternation.

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